Author(s): Klas Karlgren
Affiliation(s): Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
Date of publication: June 29, 2016
The Educational Problem
This pattern concerns the lack of awareness and a shared understanding among learners. This pattern was originally developed in the context of simulation-based training of teams in healthcare but can probably be useful in many contexts where a group of learners analyze something such as an activity that they have just taken part in.
- Lack of awareness of own and other’s performance during simulations.
- Learners lack a common, shared understanding.
- Weak connection between theory and practice: a need for conceptualizing practices.
- During (resuscitation) work there is usually very limited or no time for learners to reflect on their behaviour.
- Learners tend to overly agree with each other.
- Learners tend to overly focus on their own performance, often in critical ways.
- Theoretical concepts can be considered self-evident on an abstract level but learners may fail to see their relevance to actual practice.
- Conflicts between different goals risk going unnoticed.
Therefore, let participants take part in continuous analysing practices. Carry out these immediately following each simulation, not just at the end of the day or course. Iterate practice (simulation) and reflection (APCER-assessment/debriefing). Provide a set of key concepts. Use a simple game-like scoring (0, 1, 2) to minimize required time.
- Use when practice is based on more than one case.
- A drawback is the added time that is required by continuous analysis activities.